22考研英语翻译复习技巧:被动语态

2021/1/22 10:39:02 来源: 网络
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  翻译是考研英语的一部分题型,如何利用足够短的时间,翻译出准确的句子,这是考生们都想要的状态。海天考研小编整理了关于翻译复习技巧的内容,一起来了解下吧。

  被动语态

  主动和被动语态的对比:

  一般现在时

  ①isam are ②do/does(V.V.s) amis are +done(V. p.p)

  一般将来时

  wille going toe (about) to +do(V.) will +be +done(V. p.p)

  一般过去时

  ①waswere ②did(V.-ed) waswere +done(V. p.p)

  现在进行时

  amisare +doing(V.-ing) amisare +doing +done(V. p.p)

  过去进行时

  waswere +doing(V.-ing) waswere +doing +done(V.p.p)

  现在完成时

  have has +done(V. p.p.) havehas +been +done(V. p.p)

  过去完成时

  had +done(V. p.p.) Had +been +done(V. p.p.)

  情态动词+V.

  情态动词+be +done(V. p.p.)

  过去将来时

  would/should +V. would/should be + done(V. p.p.)

  翻译时有以下几种翻译方法:

  ①译成汉语被动句:使用"被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为……所"等词。

  ②增加主语,即动作的实际发出者,或虚拟发出者。

  ③译成汉语无主句

  另外还有一些常用被动句型的习惯译法,需要平时积累,比如:

  It is hoped that... 希望……,有人希望……

  It is assumed that... 假设……,假定……

  It is claimed that... 据说……,有人主张……

  It is believed that... 有人想信……,大家相信……

  It is reported that... 据报道……,据通报……

  It is considered that... 人们认为……,据估计……

  It is said that... 据说……,有人说……

  【考研试题例句】

  It is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be required by a sort of special training.

  【解析】

  It is imagined by many //that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, //and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.

  主句:it is imagined,其中it为形式主语,而that引导的 that the operations... compared with these processes和that they have to ... special training是并列的主语从句,为真正的主语。原文中有三个被动语态is imagined,be compared和be required,译成汉语都变成了主动表达:"认为"、"相比"和"掌握"。具体为:

  (1)It is imagined by many 此处是"It+被动语态+that"形式的处理,译为"很多人认为"。

  (2)that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, 此处所用的是译成汉语主动句的处理方法,并保存原文主语译为"普通人的思维活动根本无法与这些思维过程(科学家的思维过程)相比"。

  (3)and that they have to be required by a sort of special training 此处所用的是译成汉语被动句的处理方法,译为"认为这些思维过程是必须由某种专门训练才能掌握"。

  【参考译文】

  许多人以为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与这些思维过程(科学家的思维过程)相比,认为这些思维过程是必须由某种专门训练才能掌握。

  以上是海天考研小编为大家整理的22考研英语翻译复习技巧,希望能够帮助到大家,海天考研小编祝大家每天坚持复习,来年迎来一个理想的成绩。

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