21考研英语二冲刺阅读模拟试题练习2

2020/11/27 11:29:14 来源: 网络
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  模拟练习是考研冲刺阶段不可缺少的。不仅要适应考场的紧张气氛,还要进行查漏补缺。因此,大家在做模拟训练时,一定要把控好时间,在合适的时间段内,把控好正确率,从而对自己做一个考前评估!海天考研小编整理了考研英语二的模拟试题练习,一起来看看吧。

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  The problem of plastic pollution has gotten dramatically worse as production has surged without much thought to what happens once it is discarded. Bans on single­use plastic such as bags and straws have become a popular policy around the world to rein in plastic use. Although some of these rules have reduced waste in places, they do not directly address production and can send users to alternatives that are not much friendlier to the environment.

  Researchers have learned enough about the flow of plastic waste to know it poses a widespread environmental problem. Plastic causes physical harm to animals and could combine with other threats to endanger vulnerable species. There is also concern about humans inhaling and ingesting microplastic. We must do a better job of stanching the flood. Doing that means tackling two broad goals: considerably reducing the amount of plastic we produce and improving the recycling and reuse of what we make.

  The U.S. must be a bigger part of these solutions. Blame is too often laid solely at the feet of rapidly developing Asian countries that lack robust waste­management systems, and we forget the role that the U.S. plays not only in producing plastic but by exporting millions of tons of the waste to Asia. With the U.S. local authorities responsible for an overwhelmed recycling system turning to landfills and incinerators, those options can have other environmental impacts and perpetuate the creation of virgin plastic from fossil fuels. Only 9 percent of plastic in the U.S. is now recycled, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

  Federal and state governments should step up to help streamline and shore up the nation’s disjointed recycling system. Many researchers also say plastic product manufacturers need to be pushed beyond their present voluntary commitments to reduce plastic waste with incentives that will make them bear more of the cost of that waste. Countries are looking at such “extended producer responsibility” programs, which can include taxes on new products that do not have a certain percentage of recycled plastic, along with having producers pay toward the costs of collecting and recycling their products.

  Each policy has its proponents and detractors, and it is ultimately up to lawmakers to decide which ones make the most scientific, economic and political sense. In the U.S., Congress has already shown it is willing to step in, with the 2015 Microbead­Free Waters Act that banned these extremely small materials in personal care products. However, what we need are comprehensive solutions, not just Band­Aids that cover up the symptoms but ignore the roots of the plastic problem.

  26. One flaw of the bans on single-use plastic is that .

  [A] they are restricted to specific countries

  [B] they can’t solve plastic pollution at its source

  [C] they expose users to an unfriendly environment

  [D] they only regulate the use of bags and straws

  27. According to researchers, plastic is harmful because .

  [A] it may threaten the life of some species

  [B] it will cause digestive problems for people

  [C] it’s hard for humans to take in microplastic

  [D] it can bring about severe flood disasters

  28. The U.S. must take more responsibility for the plastic problem due to .

  [A] lack of strong waste-disposal systems

  [B] its wrong options on fossil fuels

  [C] incompetence in recycling plastics

  [D] its irresponsible regulatory agencies

  29. What is true of the “extended producer responsibility” programs?

  [A] They are targeted at increasing national tax revenue.

  [B] They push manufacturers to reduce plastic wastes.

  [C] They prohibit the production of plastic products.

  [D] They are voluntarily carried out by plastic producers.

  30. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?

  [A] Cancel Bans on Single-use Plastics

  [B] Blame the U.S. for Plastics Pollution

  [C] Find Band-Aids on Plastics Pollution

  [D] Address the Plastic Problem at Its Roots

  26.【答案】B

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词bans on single-use plastic可定位至原文第一段②句,但该句并没有提到禁止使用一次性塑料制品这一规定存在的缺陷,所以继续看下文③句。该句指出“它们并没有直接解决塑料制品的生产问题,并可能导致使用者选择对环境也友好不到哪去的替代产品”,B项they can’t solve plastic pollution at its source(他们不能从根本上解决塑料污染问题)是对③句中they do not directly address production的同义概括。故正确答案为B。

  【干扰项】A项they are restricted to specific countries(它们在特定的国家实行)曲解了③句中some of these rules have reduced waste in places的意思,原文说的是“其中一些规定帮助某些地区减少了塑料垃圾产生”。C项they expose users to an unfriendly environment(它们让使用者面临不友好的环境)是对③句中send users to alternatives that are not much friendlier to the environment的错误理解,原文说的是“对环境不友好的替代产品”而不是“不友好的环境”。D项they only regulate the use of bags and straws(它们只规定袋子和吸管的使用)以偏概全,原文只是以袋子和吸管进行举例说明。

  27.【答案】A

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词researchers和plastic可定位至原文第二段。本段主要介绍了塑料垃圾的危害,其中②句提到对动物的影响。A项it may threaten the life of some species(它可能会威胁到一些物种的生命安全)是对该句中endanger vulnerable species的同义替换。故正确答案为A。

  【干扰项】B项it will cause digestive problems for people(它会引起人们的消化问题)关键词来自该段③句humans inhaling and ingesting microplastic,但原文说的是“人类会吸入和摄入塑料微粒”,而不是消化问题。C项it’s hard for humans to take in microplastic(人类很难吸收塑料微粒)属于反向干扰,原文③句暗含的意思是“人类容易摄入塑料微粒”。D项it can bring about severe flood disasters(它能带来严重的洪水灾害)关键词来自该段④句,但原文中的flood只是表达一种象征意义,指代的是“塑料污染问题”。

  28.【答案】C

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干可定位至原文第三段①句,题干中The U.S. must take more responsibility for plastic problem是该句的同义替换。该句为段落主旨句,下文阐述“美国应为塑料问题承担更多责任”的具体原因。该段③④句主要提到美国塑料回收的现状,C项incompetence in recycling plastics(塑料回收方面的无能表现)是对③句中turning to landfills and incinerators和④句中Only 9 percent of plastic in the U.S. is now recycled的总结概括。故正确答案为C。

  【干扰项】A项lack of strong waste-disposal systems(缺乏强有力的废物处理系统)偷换概念,原文说的是“亚洲国家”而不是“美国”。B项its wrong options on fossil fuels(在化石燃料上的错误选择)关键词来自该段③句中的those options,但文中指的是“选择使用垃圾填埋场和焚烧炉”。D项its irresponsible regulatory agencies(其不负责任的监管机构)关键词regulatory agencies来自该段④句中的Environmental Protection Agency,但irresponsible属于无中生有。

  29.【答案】B

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词extended producer responsibility programs可定位至原文第四段③句。该句主要介绍了“生产者责任延伸计划”的具体内容,上文②句则指出实施此类计划的目的:刺激塑料产品制造商超越目前的自愿承诺,减少塑料垃圾排放。B项They push manufacturers to reduce plastic wastes(它们推动制造商减少塑料垃圾排放)是对②句中be pushed beyond their present voluntary commitments to reduce plastic waste的同义转换。故正确答案为B。

  【干扰项】A项They are targeted at increasing national tax revenue(它们的目标是增加国家税收)中tax来自该段③句,但increasing national tax revenue属于无中生有。C项They prohibit the production of plastic products(它们禁止生产塑料制品)无中生有,原文说的是“对可回收塑料占比不达标的新产品征税”。D项They are voluntarily carried out by plastic producers(它们是由塑料产品制造商自愿发起的)是voluntary commitments to reduce plastic waste的错误理解,原文说的是“自愿承诺减少塑料垃圾排放”,而不是“自愿发起生产者责任延伸计划”。

  30.【答案】D

  【解析】本题为主旨大意题。原文第五段③句提到“我们需要的是全面的解决方案,而不仅仅是能够掩盖症状而忽略塑料问题根源的权宜之计”,Band­Aids指代上文提到的“禁止使用一次性塑料制品的规定”;结合第一段③句提到的they do not directly address production可知D项Address the Plastic Problem at Its Roots(要从源头上解决塑料污染问题)符合原文主旨要求。故正确答案为D。

  【干扰项】A项Cancel Bans on Single-use Plastics(取消对一次性塑料的禁令)关键词Single-use Plastics来自原文第一段③句,但文中只是提到了该禁令的一些缺陷,并没有完全否定它的作用。B项Blame the U.S. for Plastics Pollution(将塑料污染归咎于美国)以偏概全,只是概括了原文第三段的段落大意。C项Find Band-Aids on Plastics Pollution(寻找解决塑料污染的权宜之计)是对原文第五段③句的错误理解,原文说的是“要寻找全面的解决方案,而不仅仅是权宜之计”。

  【参考译文】

  由于塑料制品产量的激增以及没有过多考虑它们被丢弃后会带来的后果,塑料污染问题已经急剧恶化。禁止塑料袋和吸管等一次性塑料制品的使用已经成为世界各地控制塑料制品使用的一项流行政策。但是,尽管其中一些规定帮助减少了某些地区的塑料垃圾产生,但它们并没有直接解决塑料制品的生产问题,并可能导致使用者选择对环境也友好不到哪去的替代产品。

  研究人员已经对塑料垃圾的流动有了足够的了解,知道它会带来广泛的环境问题。塑料会对动物造成身体上的伤害,并可能与其他威胁一起危及脆弱物种的生命。另外一个担心是人类会吸入和摄入塑料微粒。因此我们必须更好地遏止塑料污染的洪流。这意味着要实现两大目标:大大减少我们生产的塑料量,并提高对我们生产的产品的回收和再利用能力。

  美国必须在这些解决方案中承担更多责任。人们常常把责任完全推给缺乏健全垃圾管理系统的快速发展的亚洲国家,而忘记了美国在生产塑料以及向亚洲出口数百万吨塑料垃圾方面所扮演的角色。由于负责管理不堪重负的回收系统的美国 地方政府转向使用垃圾填埋场和焚烧炉,这些选择可能会对环境产生其他影响,并使采用化石燃料生产的原生塑料永久化。根据美国环境保护署的数据,目前美国只有9%的塑料是得到了回收的。

  联邦政府和州政府应该站出来帮助精简和支撑这个国家支离破碎的回收系统。许多研究人员还表示,需要让塑料产品制造商承担更多的垃圾排放成本,以此刺激他们超越目前的自愿承诺,减少塑料垃圾排放。各国正在考虑“生产者责任延伸计划”,其中包括对可回收塑料占比不达标的新产品征税,同时要求生产商支付收集和回收产品的成本。

  每一项政策都有其支持者和反对者,最终由立法者决定哪一项政策最具科学、经济和政治意义。在美国,美国国会已经表示愿意介入,2015年通过的《禁用塑料微粒护水法案》禁止在个人护理产品中使用极其微小的塑料材料。然而,我们需要的是全面的解决方案,而不仅仅是能够掩盖症状而忽略塑料问题根源的权宜之计。

  以上是海天考研小编为大家整理的考研英语二冲刺阅读模拟试题练习,小编祝大家每天坚持复习,来年迎来一个理想的成绩。

  2021考研人数将近增长80w,22考研er压力剧增!如何选择适合自己的考研专业?如何能够突出重围?你需要和海天考研网的老师聊一聊。

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